关于“读”

本页内容:

【如何“读”(速读)】example1:关键词, 例子2 第一句,很重要,
【精读,感觉】孙婧妍 ,背,语感
【如何读一本书】 书,先读目录,读好书直接与大师对话 如何读一本书
      如何看”新闻联播“ Learn More, Study Less (整体性学习)
【全息学习多动笔】 写 听、写、眼耳嘴手并用,日记·模板·坚持·好习惯·正能量·语感 考试时老师喜欢的字考试拿高分的字·
 
 

 

【如何“读”(速读)】

中文我们都讲“一目十行”,英文也行。观察一下中文为什么你行?因为:

  1. 重点词扫描、四快 。你只注意主词,包括动词名词地点日期等,对于之乎者也的词,基本忽略。所以如果观察一下自己的学习行为,你要读的其实就是几个关键词,

  2. 第一句,很重要,讲这一段是什么内容。

  3. 训练一目十行的看,把英文段落当成“画”来看,至少第一遍是这样,大概看个轮廓。不要上来就细读。因为考试时间往往不够用。

  4. 单词,关于单词的熟悉度,我们注意到,读有些中文单词时,有时要想一下,才能知道它的含义,读读的速度,是在这些点上被耽误的。所以,频度1-3级的(2000左右)单词,要多次的反复的看,抄,才可以形成一看就知而不用想的境界,这样,阅读速度会飞速的提高,这就是秘诀了。都记得读中文比读英文快,为什么?就是这个道理:不用想!

  5. 市面上所说的“四快”学习,就是利用了这个特点。下图举了一个例子,你的眼球可以首先定在这几个highlight上。

example1:关键词

市面上所说的“四快”学习,就是利用关键词。下图举了一个例子,你的眼球可以首先定在这几个highlight上。

Learning:A Lifelong Career【学习:一生的事业】

As food is to the body, so is learning to the mind. Our bodies grow and muscles develop with the intake of adequate nutritious food. Likewise, we should keep learning day by day to maintain our keen mental power and expand our intellectual capacity. Constant learning supplies us with inexhaustible fuel for driving us to sharpen our power of reasoning, analysis, and judgment. Learning incessantly is the surest way to keep pace with the times in the information age, and an infallible warrant of success in times of uncertainty.

Once learning stops, vegetation sets in. It is a common fallacy to regard school as the only workshop for the acquisition of knowledge. On the contrary, learning should be a never-ending process, from the cradle to the grave. With the world ever changing so fast, the cease from learning for just a few days will make a person lag behind. What's worse, the animalistic instinct dormant deep in our subconsciousness will come to life, weakening our will to pursue our noble ideal, sapping our determination to sweep away obstacles to our success and strangling our desire for the refinement of our character. Lack of learning will inevitably lead to the stagnation of the mind, or even worse, its fossilization, Therefore, to stay mentally young, we have to take learning as a lifelong career.

 

例子2 第一句,很重要,讲这一段是什么内容

下面文章,一共三段,非常清晰

 

 

 

【关于精读,背,语感: 】

清华状元 孙婧妍 http://km2000.us/mywritings/sunjingyan.htm

…… 所有学生都是读书的,而语文素养的区分,在于读什么、怎么读、能不能坚持。

…… 与填鸭般在假日里一天读十本书相比,培养细水长流的读书习惯无疑更为重要。读书的目的不在快、不在多,而在于从书中汲取营养,在于通过整个阅读过程修养一颗宁静而富有感知力的心灵。 我从在小学学会选择正确的书开始,

一本好书至少值得阅读两到三遍:

  • 第一遍略读以满足自己的阅读兴趣并了解书的内容与结构,
  • 第二遍精读以摘抄、把握整本书的布局以及其中一些巧妙的铺垫与伏笔,
  • 如果还能再读一遍,我就会抽时间写一些类似专题研究的心得,比如对整本书思想的一个探讨,或者对书中某种表达的质疑。

…… 只有当你抱着学习的心态去品味、去研究、去思考甚至去质疑书本时,它于你才算得上有意义。

…… 除了阅读方法外,读书应当是一件精细而持续的事情。与填鸭般在假日里一天读十本书相比,培养细水长流的读书习惯无疑更为重要。

…… 这就是语感。为什么说读书能够培养语感呢?这是因为世界上的任何一本经典都是时间沉淀下来的精华,它之中的字词语句都是最为准确、最为质量上乘的。  读书多了,就会培养出语感。语感一种玄之又玄的东西,你叫一个有语感的人去做卷子,他或许

对于高中写作,也就是以应试为目的的作文,我的建议只有六个字:多读、多仿、多写。

文章这种东西,不管是何种题材、何种长短、何种文体,归根结底完全就是四个字:含道映物。明确了这一点,等于直接抓住了阅读题的答题技巧——无论是手法或作用分析、划线句赏析还是含义理解,都属于对于“物”的发问,而我们要做的事则非常简单,就是找到作者的“道”。

 


Of Study ——《论读书》

Francis Bacon

Bacon ……  Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability.…… Reading maketh a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man.

Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. Their chief use for delight, is in privateness and retiring; for ornament, is in discourse;and for ability, is in the judgment and disposition of business.

读书足以怡情,足以傅彩,足以长才。其怡情也,最见于独处幽居之时;其傅彩也,最见于高谈阔论之中;其长才也,最见于处世判事之际。

For expert and execute, and perhaps judge of particulars, one by one; but the general counsels, and the plots and marshalling of affairs, come best form those that are learned. To spend too much time in studies is sloth; to use them too much for ornament, is affectation; to make judgement wholly by their rules, is the humour of a scholar.

练达之士虽能分别处理细事或一一判别枝节,然纵观统筹,全局策划,则舍好学深思者莫属。读书费时过多易惰,文采藻饰太盛则矫,全凭条文断事乃学究故态。

They perfect nature, and are perfected by experience: for natural abilities are like natural plants, that need proyning by study; and studies themselves do give forth directions too much at large, except they be bounded in by experience.

读书补天然之不足,经验又补读书之不足,盖天生才干犹如自然花草,读书然后知如何修剪移接,而书中所示,如不以经验范之,则又大而无当。

Crafty men contemn studies, simple men admire them, and wise men use them;for they teach not their own use; but that is a wisdom without them, and above them, won by observation.

有一技之长者鄙读书,无知者羡读书,唯明智之士用读书,然书并不以用处告人,用书之智不在书中,而在书外,全凭观察得之。

Read not to contradict and confute; nor to believe and take for granted; nor to find talk and discourse; but to weigh and consider.

读书时不可存心诘难读者,不可尽信书上所言,亦不可只为寻章摘句,而应推敲细思。

Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested; that is, some books are to be read only in parts;others to be read, but not curiously; and some few to be read wholly, and with diligence and attention. Some books also may be read by deputy, and extracts made of them by others; but that would be only in the less important arguments, and the meaner sort of books; else distilled books are,like common distilled waters, flashy things.

书有可浅尝者,有可吞食者,少数则须咀嚼消化。换言之,有只需读其部分者,有只须大体涉猎者,少数则须全读,读时须全神贯注,孜孜不倦。书亦可请人代读,取其所作摘要,但只限题材较次或价值不高者,否则书经提炼犹如水经蒸馏,淡而无味。

Reading maketh a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man.And therefore, if a man write little, he had need have a great memory; if he confer little, he had need have a present wit; and if he read little, he had need have much cunning, to seem to know that he doth not.

读书使人充实,讨论使人机智,笔记使人准确。因此不常做笔记者须记忆力特强,不常讨论者须天生聪颖,不常读书者须欺世有术,始能无知而显有知。

Histories make men wise; poets witty; the mathematics subtile; natural philosophy deep; moral grave; logic and rhetoric able to contend. Abeunt studia in morse.

读史使人明智,读诗使人灵秀,数学使人周密,科学使人深刻,伦理学使人庄重,逻辑修辞之学使人善辩;凡有所学,皆成性格。

Nay there is no stand or impediment in the wit, but may be wrought out by fit studies: like as diseases of the body may have appropriate exercises.Bowling is good for the stone and reins; shooting for the lungs and breast;gentle walking for the stomach; riding for the head; and the like. So if a man's wit be wandering, let him study the mathematics; for in demonstrations, if his wit be called away never so little, he must begin again. If his wit be not apt to distinguish or find differences, let him study the schoolmen; for they are cymini sectores. If he be not apt to beat over matters, and to call up one thing to prove and illustrate another, let him study the lawyers' cases. So every defect of the mind may have a special receipt.

人之才智但有滞碍,无不可读适当之书使之顺畅,一如身体百病,皆可借相宜之运动除之。滚球利睾肾,射箭利胸肺,慢步利肠胃,骑术利头脑,诸如此类。如智力不集中,可令读数学,盖演题需全神贯注,稍有分散即须重演;如不能辩异,可令读经院哲学,盖是辈皆吹毛求疵之人;如不善求同,不善以一物阐证另一物,可令读律师之案卷。如此头脑中凡有缺陷,皆有特效可医。

 

译者简介:

王佐良先生,1916年2月12日生,诗人、翻译家、教授、英国文学研究专家,北京外国语学院副院长。1939年毕业于西南联合大学外语系(原清华大学外语系),留校任教,1947年赴英国牛津大学为攻读英国文学研究生。专于英国文学的研究,著有《英国十七世纪剧作家韦勃斯特的文学声誉》(英文)、《英国文学论文集》,《英语文体学论文集》和《风格和风格的背后》等,译有〔英〕《彭斯诗选》,中译英《雷雨》(曹禺著),《中外文学之间》,《论契合比较文学研究集》,《照澜集》。当然,其最广为流传的篇作是翻译培根随笔集其中的《论学习》等,该译作的语言精炼优美传神,被广大读者视为是最权威的版本。

 

 

【写】多动笔

听、写、说+听,眼耳嘴手并用

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

【如何读一本书】

1.  《如何阅读一本书》是一本阅读指南,介绍了阅读的方法、技巧,阅读所应具备的广阔视野。自1948年问世以来,在西方世界好评甚多,重版多次。

点击图

 

2.Scott H. Young 学习理论 书名:Learn More, Study Less

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://km2000.us/mywritings/study8.html